Wednesday, July 8, 2015


(Words in blue are links)
» What is Zoroastrianism?
» Is Zoroastrianism a Religion, Philosophy, Way-of-Life...? The Spirit
» The Name Zoroaster, Zarathushtra, Zarathustra
» Etymology of the Name Zoroaster, Zarathushtra, Zarathustra - Speculations
» Images of Zarathushtra / Zarathustra / Zoroaster
» Magi - Zoroastrian Priests
» Astrology & Zoroastrianism
» Note in J.M. Ashmand's Translation (1822) of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos
» When Does the Zoroastrian Day Start?
» When Does the Zoroastrian Day Start? Detailed
» Disposal of Organic Waste. Environmental Protection
Ethics and Values:
» Zoroastrian Ethos
Ferdowsi's Shahnameh:
» Ferdowsi's Legacy
» Bastan Nameh
Food, Diet, Cuisine:
» Were Ancient Iranians and Zoroastrians Vegetarian? (Updated)
» Irani Cafés - Disappearing Heritage
» Irani Zarathushti Traditions: Health Giving and Healing Foods
» Dietary Training of Achaemenian Persian Children
» Achaemenian Persian King's Table
» Parthian Cuisine
» Sassanian Cuisine
» Wine
» Similarities in Greek & Persian-Iranian Cuisine
Greek-Persian Relations and Influence:
» Alexander and the Talking Trees
» Greek Perceptions of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism & the Magi
» Zoroastrian-Persian Influence on Greek Philosophy and Sciences
» Influence of Persians on Greek Philosophy, Arts and Science - Clement of Alexandria
» Alcibiades, Plato & Some Amazing Insights. Part 1 The Historical Alcibiades
» Alcibiades, Plato & Some Amazing Insights. Part 2 Selections from Plato
» Ostanes Persian Sage
» (Chaldean) Oracles of Zoroaster - an Introduction
» (Chaldean) Oracles of Zoroaster - Beliefs Summary by Psellus and this Author
» Roman Emperor Julian and the Seven Rays
» Similarities in Greek & Persian-Iranian Cuisine
» Porphyry on the Magi, Animals and Diet
» Diogenes Laertius - Lives of Eminent Philosophers
» Arteans: Persian's Native Name. Persians, Perses, Perseus & Cephenes (New)
» Herodotus on Persian Attire (New)
Health & Healing:
» Zoroastrian Heritage and Healing
» Who Were the Aryans?
» Iranian-Aryan Connections with Western Tibet
» Cyrus the Great (at Zoroastrian Heritage)
» Cyrus the Great - His Religion & Inspiration
» Cyrus the Great - Pasargadae, Capital (at Zoroastrian Heritage)
» Cyrus the Great - Information Sources
» Cyrus the Great - Xenophon's Cyropaedia (at Zoroastrian Heritage)
» Cyrus the Great - Hebrew Bible Quotes
» Cyrus Cylinder
» Cyrus Cylinder - its Discoverer Hormuzd Rassam
» Cyrus Cylinder - its Remarkable Discovery
» Cyrus Cylinder - Contents (Eduljee)
» Cyrus Cylinder - Translation (Rogers)
» Cyrus Cylinder - Translation (Finkel)
» Cyrus' Edict & the Chinese Cuneiform Bones
» Cyrus Cylinder - Talk by Neil MacGregor
» Amazons & Kurdish Women Warriors (New)
» Amazons, Troy & the Western Realms of Aryana (New)
» Ancient Westernmost Asia Minor (New)
» Herodotus' References to the Saka (New)
» Kurdish Origins & the Saka Claim. Pt. 1 - Credibility of Sources (New)
» Kurdish Origins & the Saka Claim. Pt. 2 - Inscriptions at Saqqez, Kurdistan (Iran) (New)
» Halicarnassus Mausoleum & Amazonomachy Frieze Panels (New)
» Ethnicity of Amazons, Artemisia & Carians. Clues Through Attire (New)
Language & Etymology:
» Etymology & Genealogy of Tahmuras / Tahmurath
» Zamyad (Zam) Yasht 19.4/5 Translation & Notes. Hushang Subjugates Divs, Yatus & Pairikas
» Meaning of Suffix -va, -van(em), -vant(em), -vand, -mand
» Etymology of Khoda / Khuda & khvet-vadta
» Khv, Xv and Hv Sounds in Avestan & Transition to Modern Persian
» Exploring Connections Between Persian & Roman Mithraism
» Roman Emperor Julian and the Seven Rays
» Halicarnassus Mausoleum & Amazonomachy Frieze Panels (New)
Mythology & Legends:
» Gaya, Gav, Geush Urvan, Gaokerena, Haoma
» Kangdez - Far Away Land Beyond the Sea
» The Great Ocean Vourukasha / Frakhvkard / Varkash
» Etymology & Genealogy of Tahmuras / Tahmurath
» Cypress of Kashmar Sources. In six parts: » 1. Shahnameh » 2. The Dabistan » 3. Thomas Hyde » 4. Qazvini » 5. Burhan-i Kati » 6. Various
» Pahlavans & Sakastan. In nine parts: » 1. Introduction » 2. Timur's Account » 3. Lineage & Nation » 4. Thraetaona & Thrita. Keresaspa & Urvakhshaya. Varena, Rangha & Patashkhvargar » 5. Trita, Visvarupa & Ahi in the Vedas » 6. Battles with Dragon-Snakes » 7. Garshasp, Saam & Zal in the Shahnameh » 8. End Times. The Renovation of the World » 9. Religion in Sakastan
» Hermippus Redivivus by J.H. Cohausen (1749) - Hermetic Philosophy & Zoroaster
» Bon, Zoroastrianism & Dualism
» Dual, Duality & Dualism. Definitions
» The Two - Ta Mainyu
» Yin-Yang Dualism. Development of the Concept
» Yin-Yang in Daoism / Taoism. The Daodejing by Laozi. Zhuangzi
» Plutarch. His Work, Duality and the Soul
» Pythagorean Beliefs and Zoroastrianism
» Golden Verses of Pythagoras
» Summary of the Doctrines of Zoroaster and Plato by George Gemistos Pletho(n)
» When was the Avestan Canon Closed?
» Aredvi Sura Anahita & Aban
» God, Time & Creation in Zoroastrianism
» Etymology of Khoda / Khuda & khvet-vadta
» The Difference between Ahura (Khoda), Mazda & Yazata (Yazdan) - Lord, God & Divine
» Bon, Zoroastrianism & Dualism
Zoroastrian Practice:
» Attaining the Age of Responsibility & Initiation. Kusti.
» Hamazor - United in Strength, Handshake & Prayer. The Payvand

This blog contains random articles and notes prepared by this author. For a more comprehensive overview of Zoroastrian / Zarathushtrian heritage, please visit this author's Zoroastrian Heritage website at:

Halicarnassus Mausoleum & Its Amazonomachy Frieze Panels

Amazonomachy scene: An Amazon woman warrior (left) doing battle with a Greek on a frieze (decorative band that runs the length of a building's wall) panel from the Halicarnassus Mausoleum and now at the British Museum. Image credit: Wikipedia.
A frieze panel from the Halicarnassus Mausoleum depicting Amazons battling Greek soldiers. The Amazons can be identified by their flowing capes. Image credit: British Museum.
Another Amazonomachy frieze panel from the Halicarnassus Mausoleum. Image credit: Wikipedia,
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus- One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Besides being one of Strabo's seven wonders of the world (at Geography 14.2.16), the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Caria (now in western Turkey) is also famed for a relief depicting the Amazons (the Amazon Frieze) that once adorned the magnificent edifice. The word 'mausoleum', now part of our everyday lexicon meaning a grand tomb, is derived from Mausolus, the Persian satrap or governor-general of Caria, known to the Persians as Karka. Mausolus had been satrap of Caria/Karka from 377 to 353 BCE. He succeeded his father Hecatomnus who served as satrap for the Persian Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II (r. 404-359 BCE). Upon Mausolus' death, his wife, Artemisia II (r. 353-350 BCE and not to be mistaken for her illustrious namesake who flourished c.480 BCE) commissioned the building of the mausoleum as the resting place for his remains. Artemisia became satrap of Caria upon Mausolus' death.

[The use of a mausoleum for a resting place for the dead conforms to the Zoroastrian standards for disposing dead bodies i.e. encased in stone with no contact with the soil - as with the tomb of Cyrus the Great and the rock face tombs of the other Achaemenid kings.]
An artist's impression of the Halicarnassus Mausoleum. Image credit: Pervandr at
Halicarnassus was a port city on the south-western (Aegean) coast of Anatolia. Today, it is the Turkish city of Bodrum. Halicarnassus' other claim to fame is that it was the birthplace of Herodotus (c. 484–425 BCE), often called the father of history. Halicarnassus became the capital of the Persian satrapy (governorate) of Caria when the satrap (governor general) Mausolus moved there from Mylasa (present day Milas located to the east of Halicarnassus/Bodrum). (Mylasa/Milas is home to the ruins of a Roman era mausoleum said to have been modelled on the larger one at Halicarnassus.)

Anciently, Caria was a part of the Hittite sub-kingdom of Arzawa. It was known to the Persians as Karka and to the Phoenicians as Karak. Parts of coastal Caria were invaded and settled by Ionian and Dorian Greeks in the century or so following the c. 1200 BCE Greek assault and destruction of Troy to the north of Caria (see Chronology of the Region's History at our page on Ancient Westernmost Asia Minor
Halicarnassus (follow red arrow) in Anatolia. Place names are Greco-Roman.

Mausoleum Ruins
The rubble. What is left of the Mausoleum today. Image credit: Wikimedia (2009).
Other than rubble, little remains of the grand mausoleum and we read speculation that the mausoleum was damaged by earthquakes. What we told as well is that when the crusading Knights of St. John of Jerusalem arrived in Bodrum/Halicarnassus in 1402 CE, they used the mausoleum's stones to build a castle and its bas reliefs as decoration for their castle. The knights also burnt the mausoleum's marble in order to make lime [James Ferguson in The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (London, 1862) pp 6-10].

The Scottish Rite Masonic Temple in Washington, DC, USA was designed to be a replica of the Halicarnassus Mausoleum. 
» Also see Ethnicity of Artemisia, Amazons & Carians